Present Method Of Garbage Disposal
1. Dumping in land fill sites
Disadvantage of Present Methods
Advantage of Proper Waste Management
1. Organic manure by composting or vermicomposting
2. Recycle of the metal, paper and glass materials
3. Proper disposal of hazardous waste
4. It generates business and employment
Wet & dry garbage
DRY GARBAGE Wet Garbage
Plastics Vegetable waste
Metal Food waste
Thermocol, Foam Garden waste
Glass Coconut shell
Rexine Small pieces of wood
Paper Meat Bones / residual
Cloth Used cotton, paper etc
Bulbs, Tubes etc Nirmalya, used flower
Plastic laminated paper
Leather item like belts, shoes, etc
Used diapers, sanitary towels etc
Vermiculture means artificial rearing or cultivation of earthworms. Vermicompost is the excreta of earthworm. Earthworms eat Garbage, cow dung or farm yard material and pass it through their body and in the process convert it into vermicompost. Earthworms by consuming garbage converts it into valuable manure but keep the environment healthy. Conversion of garbage by earthworms into compost and the multiplication of earthworms are simple process and can be easily handle by anybody. It is a process of converting organic waste into stabilized organic matter using the Earth worm. It is best suited to housing Societies where they have some space to deposit garbage for long period and some distance required in case if it smells due to overfeeding. This is an easy way to recycle your organic kitchen wastes. Vermicomposting requires very little work, produces no offensive odors, and helps plants thrive. Only a few things are needed to make good worm compost: a pit, bed, worms and its food.
Method of preparation of Vermicompost - A covered roof shed open from all sides with unpaved floor is erected to protect the site from direct sunlight. A shed area of 12 x 12 is sufficient to accommodate three vermibeds of 10 x 3 each having 1 space in between for treatment of 9-12 quintals of waste in a cycle of 40-45 days. The length of shed can be increased/decreased depending upon the quantity of waste to be treated and availability of space. The base of the site is raised above ground to protect it from flooding during the rains. The vermibeds are laid over the raised area .The site marked for vermibeds on the raised ground is watered and a 4-6 layer of any biodegradable domestic waste such as food leftover, rotten fruits, sugarcane waste etc. is laid over it after soaking with water. This is followed by 1 layer of Vermicompost or cow dung. Water is sprinkled on the vermibeds daily according to requirement and season to keep them moist. The waste is turned upside down fortnightly without disturbing the vermibed. The appearance of black granular dry crumbly flakes on top of vermibeds indicates harvest stage of the compost. Watering is stopped for at least few days at this stage. The earthworms go down and the compost is collected from the top without disturbing the lower layers (vermibed). The first lot of Vermicompost is ready for harvesting approximately after 2 months and the subsequent lots can be harvested after every 6 weeks of loading.
A pit needs to be only 8"-16" deep, since compost worms are surface feeders. One can build their own pit. Pits can be made out of cement like civil constructions with a hole at the base to drain out extra water. Just be sure that the pit has a cover to keep out flies and rodents. Since worms like moderate temperatures, place the pit in a shady location where it will not overheat.
Black and white newspaper is the most readily available and easy-to-use bed material. Tear it into strips about one inch wide and moisten so it is as damp as a wrung-out sponge. Cow or horse manure can be used to lighten bed and absorb excess moisture.
The best kind of worms for composting is red worms. These worms have a big appetite, reproduce quickly, and thrive in confinement. They can eat more than their own weight in food every day
Advantages of Vermicomposting
Vermicompost is a natural fertilizer prepared from biodegradable organic wastes.
It improves water retention capacity of soil because of its high organic matter content.
It promotes better root growth and nutrient absorption.
It reduces expenses of the Municipality
Precautions to be taken while preparing vermibed
Vermicompost pit should be protected from direct sun light and Heat.
To maintain moisture level, spray water on the pit as and when required.
Protect the worms from ant, rat and bird
Problems that may occur while preparing vermicompost
Worms Dying - It may be that worms are not getting enough food, which means that they are bury under garbage. Pits may be dry, in which case we should moist the bed. They may be to wet, in which case we should add bedding. The worms may be to hot, in which case we should put the bin in the shade.
Pit Smells - If our pit smells rotten and attracts flies, there may be two reasons. First, it may be that there is not enough air circulation. They are covered by garbage and do not feed them for two weeks. Second, there may be non - compostables present such as meat, pet feces, or greasy food. These should be removed.
Some Tips while preparing vermicompost
Worms do not like noise. Avoid keeping them in high noise area.
Avoid meat, bones, fish and oily foods since these will make the compost pile smell as well as attract flies, rodents
It's best to feed worms once a
week in small amounts. If we feed them more than they can process we will end
up with a stinking compost pit as the garbage literally backs up.
If you give them appropriately
sized garbage feeding they will eat the food before it starts rotting and smelling.
If they are eating too slowly, chop up vegetable matter, which is easier for them to eat.
If the bedding is wet, give some additional paper bedding to soak up the excess. If the bedding is too dry, use water to moisten it.